Amit Bhargava (TE Comps - VESIT)"Living organisms are naturally-existing, fabulously complex systems of molecular nanotechnology."
The above statement raises the interesting possibility that machines constructed at the molecular level (nanomachines) may be used to cure the human body of its various ills. This application of nanotechnology to the field of medicine is commonly called as nanomedicine.
NANOROBOTS: WHAT ARE THEY?
Nanorobots are nanodevices that will be used for the purpose of maintaining and protecting the human body against pathogens. They will have a diameter of about 0.5 to 3 microns and will be constructed out of parts with dimensions in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. The main element used will be carbon in the form of diamond / fullerene nanocomposites because of the strength and chemical inertness of these forms. Many other light elements such as oxygen and nitrogen can be used for special purposes. To avoid being attacked by the hosts immune system, the best choice for the exterior coating is a passive diamond coating. The smoother and more flawless the coating, the less the reaction from the bodys immune system. Such devices have been designed in recent years but no working model has been built so far.
The powering of the nanorobots can be done by metabolising local glucose and oxygen for energy. In a clinical environment, another option would be externally supplied acoustic energy. Other sources of energy within the body can also be used to supply the necessary energy for the devices. They will have simple onboard computers capable of performing around 1000 or fewer computations per second. This is because their computing needs are simple. Communication with the device can be achieved by broadcast-type acoustic signalling.
A navigational network may be installed in the body, with stationkeeping navigational elements providing high positional accuracy to all passing nanorobots that interrogate them, wanting to know their location. This will enable the physician to keep track of the various devices in the body. These nanorobots will be able to distinguish between different cell types by checking their surface antigens (they are different for each type of cell). This is accomplished by the use of chemotactic sensors keyed to the specific antigens on the target cells.
When the task of the nanorobots is completed, they can be retrieved by allowing them to exfuse themselves via the usual human excretory channels. They can also be removed by active scavenger systems. This feature is design-dependent.
FIELDS OF APPLICATION:
Some possible applications using nanorobots are as follows:
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