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IEEE  Region  3,  Council  9,  Section  65              September 1996 
[1] September Meeting 
[2] Reservations and Location 
[3] VMS News: Meeting Report 
[4] SouthEast Conference '97 
[5] Electronic Newsletter Subscription 
[6] IE/Computer/Contrl Chapter News 
[7] What is? 
	New Services: 
	Revised List Server Usage 
	New Informational List Server 
	New  VMS Web Home Page 
[8] Requesta to Chapter Chairs 
[9] Special report on the April Meeting 
	If you missed it, all you ever need to know about EV 
[10] Subscription, Submission. and Address Info 
[11] For Your Information (Section/Chapter Officers) 
September Meeting 
Joint with the Microwave Theory &  
Techniques/Electron Devices Chapter 
George Studtmann 
RFIC Product Engineer ITT-GTC  
Manufacturing  GaAs  Integrated Circuits  for  the   
Wireless  Market 
A common witticism in the semiconductor industry is that  
"Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) is the semiconductor of the  
future and always will be." With the advent of wireless  
communications, the future for GaAs has finally arrived. 
In response to the demands generated by the exploding  
wireless communication industry, ITT-GTC has developed  
a GaAs manufacturing process designed to produce  
affordable high frequency integrated circuits. Though  
originally targeted at military applications, ITT began  
directing its manufacturing efforts toward other markets in  
1989. Today, ITT is actively supplying high frequency  
switches and power amplifiers for commercial wireless  
In this discussion, an overview of the ITT GaAs technology  
and its direct application to integrated circuits for the  
wireless market will be presented. The talk will include the  
following topics: 
  The GaAs material properties that allow for high  
frequency analog circuit design. 
  The unique ITT wafer manufacturing features,  
including passivation, and glassivation.  
  Typical RF amplifier circuit design methodology.  
  Examples of ITT RF switch and low-voltage, high  
efficiency power amplifier products. 
About the Author 
George Studtmann is an RFIC product engineer and the  
RFIC test manger at ITT-GTC. He received the BS and MS  
degrees in electrical engineering from Purdue in 1986 and  
1988. Since 1988, he has been engaged in the process and  
product development of affordable GaAs integrated circuits  
for commercial communication markets. 
Reservations  for the September Meeting 
	Thursday, September 19 
	Time:	Social: 6:30  PM, Dinner 7:00 PM 
	Place:	Sheraton Inn 
	  2727 Ferndale Drive, Roanoke 
	  Exit 30-W (Hershberger Rd West) off I-581, 
	  then right at 1st traffic light 
	Cost:	Member or Guest	$ 12.00 
		Student			$   4.50 
Dinner reservations are important. They significantly  
affect the Section's expenses. Please contact one of the  
following before 5 PM on Monday, September 16. 
Roanoke:	David Livingston	857-6261 
Blacksburg:	Anbo Wang		231-4355 
Lexington:	Dick Skutt		464-7236 
Radford and  
Christiansburg: 	Usha Varshney	731-0655 
 VMS Section Activities 
On May 23, 1996, the VMS continued a tradition established last  
year with its Second Annual Student Paper Contest.  This was  
held at the Blacksburg Marriott.  Four graduate students, all  
engaged in research activities at Virginia Tech, made excellent  
presentations related to their work.  The presentations were so  
good that it was difficult for the judges to decide on a winner.   
Nevertheless, here are the results. 
The winning presentation was by Kambiz Rahnavardy, whose  
topic was "Investigation and application of the frustrated-total- 
internal-reflection phenomenon in optical fibers."  He received a  
prize of $100. 
Receiving the second-place prize of $50 was Derrek Dunn, who  
described the "Design of an acousto-optic image processing  
system to perform image edge enhancement using Bragg  
The two honorable mentions were Ray Bittner, whose talk was  
entitled "An experiment in wormhole run time reconfiguration,"   
and Scott Meller, who discussed "Cross-sensitivity of extrinsic  
Fabry-Perot interferometer strain sensors." Bittner and Meller  
each received $25. 
-Lynn Abbott, reporting 
SouthEast Conference 1997 
The VMS is sponsoring the 1997 Region Conference to be held at  
Tech, April  12 - 14, 1997. 
Currently important dates: 
  Tutorial Paper proposal submission, Oct. 4 1996. 
  Initial Concise Paper submission, Oct. 18, 1996. 
Watch this space for continuing news. In the meantime, check out  
the Secon97 Web Page at 
for all manner of information about the conference: Call for  
papers, Conference Overview, Student Events, and a continually  
growing number of other items. 
The Conference Committee is looking for representatives from  
industry to participate in many phases of the planning and  
implementaion. If you or someone you know can lend a hand  
please contaact Ira Jacobs  at 
tel:	 (540) 231-5620,  or 
e-mail:	ijacobs@vt.edu. 
Electronic Newsletter 
Almost 15 percent of our members now subscribe. If you have  
not yet signed up, you are strongly encouraged to do so. Also  
see WHAT IS ? below. 
To Subscribe, see instructions in the For Your Information  
section on the last page. 
Computer/Control/IES Chapter 
No meeting this month 
Dave Geer will be setting up  new Video Series. Stay tuned. 
What Is ? 
VMS Info 
This month, WHAT IS might be called WHAT'S NEW. More  
specifically, what is new in access to information about your  
Section. There are two new methods. 
Many of you are familiar with and utilize the ListServer at Tech  
(listserv@VTVM1.cc.vt.edu) to automatically receive the  
electronic version of the Newsletter and an assortment of selected  
news items form USA-IEEE, etc. 
The reaction to the server has been mixed because of two  
opposing personal views  on what is needed. The intent, and the  
early stated purpose,  was to distribute the Newsletter. On that  
assumption, members signed up and were generally pleased. For  
better or worse, your editor found the server to be a convenient  
way of distributing some of the many bulletins, news releases,  
and miscellaneous goodies he receives from HQ and other places.   
Some of it could be important to a few members as well as simply  
interesting to others. 
Not surprisingly, there were a few complaints about overloaded  
in-boxes, and other people just signed off. There is no way of  
telling, but I get the impression that the split is around 60/40.  
(Please interpret the ratio in your favor.)  
New InfO Server 
The upshot is that thanks to Scott Midkiff and Dave Lee, we now  
have two servers for our use. The original will return to its  
intended use: automatic Newsletter distribution. The second is  
somewhat exploratory. Right now it can: 
  Be a cache for ALL of those miscellaneous items mentioned  
  Let each and every one of you post your own items. 
  Be accessed and let you download any items you wish. 
When you sign on, you will automatically receive details on how  
make use of those services. There are a couple of provisos you  
should know. First, when you submit an item, it will go to the  
List Editor (yours truly) for review before it is placed in the  
server. The other annoyance is that the "index" you will receive  
to review what is available is, currently, a list of codes! In other  
words, you won't know what the document is until you request it.  
This is being worked. 
There is a lot of potential  for the new server. It can remain as  
described, or develop into a quasi-bulletin board, a "Letters to the  
Editor" service, a vehicle for an IEEE/VMS discussion group,  or  
who knows what.  Your suggestions will be most welcome. 
The new server is called IEEEVMS_info. To sign up: 
send e-mail to:	LISTSERV@listserv.vt.edu 
with the line: 
VMS Home Page 
The second new information retrieval device is the VMS  
homepage. Here again, we thank Scott and Dave. Dave in  
particular, because he initiated the idea and did most of the work  
well over a year ago. We did not much more than "import" it. 
In any case, it is up and running with all the basics about VMS,  
its Chapters, and links to IEEE, Region 3, the Student Chapter,  
and a few more. It is an infant so, please take a look and send  
your suggestions. You can do that while you are looking at it.  
The VMS URL is: 
Chapter Chairmen 
A slot has been reserved for any and all kinds of information  
about your Chapter: History, function, requirements, activities,  
schedules, flash announcements, meetings, speakers ... . Please  
send your material to the editor or submit it with the auto-mail   
Electric Vehicle presentation 
At April's VMS meeting, Bud Konrad gave a talk on electric cars.  
The subject attracted the largest attendance the Section has seen  
for some time. Matt Thompson, a young GE engineer from  
California, temporarily assigned to GE Salem, enjoyed the  
presentation so much that he took it upon himself to write it up in  
considerable detail. We think he did an excellent job and pass it  
on for those of you who were not able to be there. 
I was very anxious to hear Bud Konrad's talk about his 35 years  
spent developing GE's Electrical Vehicles. Bud Konrad was going  
to talk about dual fuel vehicles, but because the newest project  
which he has been working on looked like it was going to be  
scrubbed, he decided to give a different presentation than he had  
originally scheduled. The reason for the project being placed on  
hold was a business and liability issue not environmental, cost or  
technical.  His current project is a study which uses 2  New York  
city busses as practical test beds. Both of these busses have  
converted power trains, and a single diesel engine driving an  
electrical generator. Bus A has 4  wheel mounted electric motors,  
with gear reduction. Bus B has a single 200 horse power AC  
motor ( 2 pole which allows a 4 to 1 speed range ) which is  
connected directly to the gear train of the bus. 
In Bud's test bed, a diesel engine driving the bus directly is about  
15% efficient, but a diesel engine which drives a generator and  
then a motor off a battery storage unit is 30% efficient. The  
doubling of efficiency is due to 2 major reasons. One is because  
the diesel can be run in the "sweet spot". The sweet spot is a  
particular speed and load which produces  the minimum pollution  
and the maximum braking horsepower. The second reason for  
increased efficiency is that when the diesel is not needed it is shut  
down. The city busses have other loads like air conditioning,  
which do not directly add to the movement of the bus. In a  
conventional bus, the diesel engine needs to run all the time to  
supply energy for  these types of loads.  But with a battery pack,  
these loads can be run with stored energy and the motor generator  
would be sized to supply the "other" loads as well as bus  
movement loads. 
The electrical systems have about 5 times the lifetime expectancy  
of conventional internal combustion drive components. In the  
electrical industry we look for failures in the 15,000 hour range  
where as in the contemporary industrial engines the standard is  
3,000 hours. The largest cost in an electrical system is the battery  
replacement. At today's cost a converted system would cost in the  
neighborhood of $3.50 per mile. And in this cost the largest  
single block is the battery replacement. Conventional lead acid  
batteries have about a 20,000 mile life time, a cost of about $3.49  
per mile. But if you use a smaller set of batteries, and couple this  
with a smaller internal combustion engine and matched generator  
to extend mileage and recharge the batteries, then a per-mile cost  
comparable to systems in use today can be achieved. Dr. Konrad  
feels this is the most likely path for the foreseeable future. 
Definitely the item which needs the greatest improvement is the  
battery. To improve this aspect the high temperature sodium  
battery is a likely solution. A test bed for these types of batteries  
were a fleet of 80 mail delivery jeeps. During the testing of these  
batteries only 2 failures occurred. One was a battery which was  
not kept at its storage temperature (350 C) and someone tried to  
recharge the battery without the soaking time. The second failure  
appears to be due to a wire harness connecting plug misalignment.  
One of the pins in the plug was not seated correctly and this  
caused a fire in the garage which was working on the vehicle.  
Otherwise the platform was a tremendous success and proved the  
reliability, storage cost per kW and  weight to energy density was  
achievable with current body of knowledge. 
I asked a question about a single electric motor verses a motor at  
each individual wheel. What Bud has learned over the years is that  
a single 2 pole AC motor can give more energy per pound of  
weight than a single DC motor. He also explained that the torque  
of a motor is linearly dependent on the diameter of the motor's  
rotor, and therefore on a typical family car a single electric motor  
is more efficient than  4 electric motors located at each wheel.   
This is due to the fact that the motor at each wheel would be  
smaller in diameter due to ground clearance than one motor  
hooked directly to a differential.  
Dr. Konrad is able to run an AC motor up to 15,000 rpm to allow  
a speed range which doesn't require a transmission. When a  
design engineer pushes the energy envelope on an induction motor  
in this manner, he needs to carry away the heat from the motor  
winding. This is accomplished with the use of an oil spray of 1  
gpm, played directly on the motor winding end-turns. This spray  
is accomplished with the addition of a small electric pump  
mounted in the sump of the transaxle. 
Someone who has not been following the advancements in electric  
vehicle technology may be asking why after so many years has the  
electric car become a point of interest and enthusiasm? A major  
driving force is that this society now recognizes that ecology is  
important and that we need to be more conservative in our use of  
fossil fuels. Driven by this ideal the legislature body of California  
passed a law requiring that a company selling vehicles in  
California must have  2%  zero emissions  vehicles by the year  
1998; and 10%  by the year 2003. Electric vehicles meet this  
mandate. Ten other states have followed California by enacting  
similar legislation. 
Before such goals can be realized, several challenges need to be  
overcome. They fall into two categories. The first is energy  
density or storage, and Category 2 is cost.  
Category 1, energy density. We have several terrific ways to  
produce electricity, like very efficient (60%) combined cycle  
generating plants or  from renewable energy sources like  
photovoltaic cells, wind generators, ocean based paddle wheels,  
or converting algae, garbage, or human waste to methane gas. But  
most energy sources must be located in stationary plant and  
therefore not adaptable to mobile vehicles. This is the major issue  
with electric vehicles: How to store the energy, in the form of  
electricity? Dr. Konrad believes one way of doing this is via the  
hybrid vehicle. We could compress Methane gas and run an  
internal combustion engine, but this is not zero emission. Or we  
could take common fuels of today, like diesel, and run a smaller  
engine at 100% of its rating all the time and charge a storage  
battery. This charging system would sit on the hybrid vehicle and  
easily double today's system efficiency. But the engine would not  
be zero emission. So, while still not zero emission, the hybrid car  
is a big step in that direction. 
Category 2, costs. If we were to switch to methane powered  
vehicles the cost to do this includes more than just the vehicle  
itself. For example, present day garages were designed with an  
assumption that flammable gasses would accumulate below 4 feet  
from the ground.  This is evident by electrical codes directing  
explosion proof fittings in these areas. If we were to migrate to  
methane these garages would need to be updated to protect against  
hazards caused by the new energy source.  
What are some specifications for an electric vehicle? With strictly  
battery power, speeds are limited to 0-60 mph in 8.5 sec (not  
bad), 80 mph top speed (most of California is 65 mph), cruising  
range of 70 miles city (this works well in most California cities),  
90 miles highway. We could accelerate faster, go farther on a  
single charge than these numbers but it would cost more in battery  
storage and increase our curb weight, reducing overall  
The hybrid car will have 2 different prime movers. The internal  
combustion engine to charge batteries which would run the motor  
to propel the vehicle. Both of these items add cost, part of which  
is returned in increased efficiency, and part which is returned in  
decreased maintenance because of the 15,000 hour standard. If the  
vehicle didn't have an internal combustion engine the mileage  
would be limited to the 70 - 90 range. 
I see great benefits in electric vehicles, but due to the limitations  
of our present day batteries, a dual energy source appears to be  
the best near-term option. 
...Matt Thompson  
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For Your Information 
	Anbo Wang	 
		awang@vt.edu	231-4355 
Vice Chairman:	 
	David Livingston  
		dllphdpe@roanoke.infi.net	857-6936 
	Usha Varshney  
		varshney@nrv.net	731-0655 
Executive Committee: 
	Russell Churchil 
		arcova@swva.net	731-0655 
	Ira Jacobs 
		ijacobs@vt.edu	231-5620 
	Daniel W. Jackson 
		d.jackson@ieee.org 	774-0484 
	Scott Midkiff 
		midkiff@vt.edu	231-3362 
Virginia Council 
	Representative:	vacant 
Industrial Application Chapter 
	Walter Hill 
		hill-wa@salem.ge.com	387-8619 
Microwave Theory & Techniques/Electron Devices 
	Hausila Singh 
		hsingh@gtc.itt.com	563-8639 
Industrial Electronics/Computer/Control Systems Chapter 
	David Geer 
		geer-dh@salem.ge.com	387-7359 
PE Chapter 
	Subhas Sarkar 
		vtc@roanoke.infi.net	345-9892 x-152 
Newsletter Editor: 
	John Fennick 
		j.fennick@ieee.org	552-0052 
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