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Abstract: The pursuit of nanotechnology in general and miniaturization of electronic devices in particular have seriously challenged the optoelectronics community to develop ever smaller lasers and optoelectronic devices compatible with the trend in microelectronics. Vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers measured a few microns were once the smallest lasers. The situation is now rapidly changing over the last 5 years with the demonstration of lasing capability of a single semiconductor nanowire of ~ 100 nanometers in diameter. The ultimate challenge to the community is: can one make a laser that is smaller than the wavelength in all 3 dimensions, or what is the ultimate size limit of a laser?
To answer this and related questions, my lecture will start with an overview of impressive recent progress in growth, fabrication, and characterization of semiconductor nanowires and demonstration of lasing activities in various wavelengths. These lasers represent one of the smallest lasers of any kind at present. We will show how this new type of miniaturized lasers differs from the conventional semiconductor lasers. To further reduce the dimension of nanowire lasers, a recent proposal of using metal coating of semiconductor wires will be evaluated by numerical simulation. We will show that a proper design of a metal coated semiconductor nanowire can achieve lasing threshold despite significant metal loss. Finally some recent novel ideas involving surface plasmonic excitations at metal-semiconductor interface will be discussed where much smaller lasers could be potentially made, with size independent of wavelengths of light emitted.
Bio: Dr. Ning obtained his PhD in Physics from University of Stuttgart, Germany. He was a Senior Scientist, group leader, or task manager at NASA Ames Center for Nanotechnology, NASA Ames Research Center from 1997-2006. He joined Arizona State University in 2006, where he is a Professor of Electrical Engineering, Affiliate Professor of Physics and Materials, with the Center for Nanophotonics, Arizona Institute of NanoElectronics and Center of Solid State Electronics Research(CSSER).
Dr. Ning has been conducting research in the general fields of laser physics, semiconductor lasers, optoelectronic device modeling and simulation for the last 20 years. Recently, his group has been involved in growth and optical characterization of semiconductor nanowires. His group was the first to grow antimonide nanowires and first to demonstrate a single-nanowire infrared laser. He has published over 120 scientific papers and given many conference presentations including over 50 invited talks. He has served in many international conference committees including SPIE Photonics West, OSA annual meetings, and CLEO. He was Associate Editor of IEEE J. Quantum Electronics (2001-2003) and a special topic editor for IEEE J. Special. Topics in Quantum Electron., J. Opt. Soc. Am., Optics Express, etc. For his research at NASA, he has won many NASA and NASA contractor awards, including NASA Group Achievment (1999) award and CSS Technical Excellence Award (2003). He was recently awarded the IEEE/LEOS Distinguished Lecturer (2007/2008).
Dr. Fred Jeffers, IEEE Fellow, past Distinguished Lecturer, and author of Mondo Magnets! Attractive (and Repulsive!) Devices and Demonstrations performs amazing demonstrations of magnetism. You and your family will be awed and amazed by Dr. Jeffers' surprising and seemingly impossible demonstrations.
Each time Dr. Jeffers has come to the Bay Area to give his presentation, he has had an overwhelming audience response. Don't miss this opportunity to see his presentation yourself, and bring your family and friends!
This event is part of the IEEE LEOS Santa Clara Valley Chapter's Annual Holiday Lecture Series. The Holiday Lecture Series is humbly modeled after the popular Faraday Lectures of the Royal Society of London.
In this talk, we review the motivations, challenges, and potential for achieving "optical-interconnects-to-the-chip" via the intimate integration of photonics components such as lasers, detectors, and modulators with Silicon VLSI electronics. We review the progress made towards developing and commercializing this technology.
Bio: Ashok V. Krishnamoorthy currently serves as Distinguished Engineer & Director with the Sun Microsystems Microelectronics Physical Sciences Center in San Diego, California. Prior to that he was with AraLight as its President and CTO as part of a Lucent spinout, where he was responsible for leading product design and development for AraLight's optical interconnect products. He also served as entrepreneur-in-residence at Lucent's New Venture group, and as a member of technical staff in the Advanced Photonics Research Department of Bell Labs where he investigated methods of integrating optical devices to Silicon VLSI circuits. He received the BS in Engineering (Honors) from the California Institute of Technology, the MS in Electrical Engineering from the University of Southern California, and the Ph.D. in Applied Physics from the University of California, San Diego.
Dr. Krishnamoorthy serves on the technical advisory board for several optical technology start-ups and venture funds, and as a distinguished lecturer for LEOS. He holds 35 US Patents and has contributed 150 technical publications in optoelectronics, 5 book chapters and presented over 45 invited talks at international technical conferences. For his contributions to optoelectronics, and his service to technical societies, the Eta Kappa Nu society named him an Outstanding Young Electrical Engineer in 1999. He was awarded the 2004 International Prize in Optics by the ICO for his technical contributions to optics. He has also won several team awards, including Computerworld's 2005 Horizon Award for Innovation. Most recently, he received the 2006 Chairman's award for Innovation by Sun Microsystems for his work on optical interconnects.
Abstract: This talk will review recent advances in high repetition rate soft x-ray lasers that allow the generation of very high brightness soft x-ray beams using table-top set ups. The peak spectral brightness of some of these new lasers can surpass that of third generation synchrotrons by orders of magnitude in the 25-100 eV photon energy region, enabling new applications. These advances include the demonstration of 5 Hz repetition rate table-top soft x-ray lasers producing intense beams at wavelengths ranging from 13.2 to 32.6 nm, and the observation of lasing at wavelengths down to 10.9 nm. The results were obtained by collisional electron impact excitation of highly ionized atoms in dense plasmas efficiently heated with picosecond optical laser pulses of only 1 J energy. The recent demonstration of seeding of these soft x-ray laser amplifiers with high harmonic pulses has further increased their brightness and improved their spatial coherence. In a separate development, the first of a new generation of extremely compact desk-top size capillary discharge soft x-ray lasers was demonstrated. It emits intense pulses of 46.9 nm wavelength light at 10 Hz repetition rate producing an average power of ~ 0.15 mW. The laser occupies a table area of about 0.4 x 0.4 square meters.
These new compact lasers are allowing a number of table-top experiments with intense soft x-ray light. These include the demonstration of broad area imaging with resolution down to 38 nm, nanoscale ablation of material, single photon ionization spectroscopy of molecules and nanoclusters, the metrology for the fabrication of the future generations of microprocessors using extreme ultraviolet lithography, and the diagnostics of dense plasmas by soft x-ray laser interferometry. Moreover the compact size of these new laser sources promises to make intense coherent soft x-ray light widely available, opening doorways to intense coherent soft x-ray science experiments on a table-top and to the development of new nanoscale metrology and processing tools for industry.
Bio: Jorge J. Rocca is a University Distinguished Professor in the Departments of Electrical and Computer Engineering and of Physics at Colorado State University. He serves as the Director of the National Science Foundation Engineering Research Center for Extreme Ultraviolet Science and Technology, a consortium between Colorado State University, the University of Colorado, and the University of California Berkeley. His research interests are in the development and physics of compact Soft X-Ray lasers, the applications of coherent Soft X-Ray Laser light, and the study of dense plasmas. He has conducted research, published more than 170 papers in peer review journals, and given numerous invited talks worldwide on topics related to short wavelength light sources, lasers, and plasmas. His research group made the first demonstration of a high average power tabletop Soft X-Ray laser and has since made demonstration of numerous applications of such sources.
Prof. Rocca has been elected Fellow of the Optical Society of America (1997), of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (2000), and the American Physical Society (2006) for his work with tabletop soft x-ray lasers. He has served as Associate Editor of the IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics for 1994-1999, as a Guest Editor of the IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, and as a member of the Editorial Board of the Review of Scientific Instruments. He has co-chaired several international conferences on X-Ray Lasers, including the 2002 8th International X-Ray Laser Conference held in Aspen, CO. He was elected IEEE LEOS Distinguished Lecturer for 2006-07.
Abstract: Semiconductor photonic nanostructures, i.e. photonic crystals (PCs) and high index contrast structures (HICs), have become worldwide topics in this decade. They strongly control light emission and propagation, and so al-lows novel phenomena and device applications. Particularly in these years, they were discussed with various topics, e.g., nanolaser, slow light, negative index optics, and Si photonics. This presentation shows some of our recent activities on these topics.
Bio: Toshihiko Baba was born in Ueda City, Nagano Prefecture, Japan, on November 12, 1962. In 1985, 1987 and 1990, he received the bachelor degree, master degree, and Ph.D. degree (Dr. of Engineering), respectively, all from the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Yokohama National University, Japan. In 1990, he belonged to Tokyo Institute of Technology, Precision and Intelligence Laboratory, as a research associate. Then he became a lecturer in 1993, an associate professor in 1994, and a full profession of Yokohama National University.
Through his Ph.D. program, he studied antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides (ARROWs) including ARROW-"B", a 3D integration for optical printed circuit boards and a bias sputtering technique for the monolithic integration of WDM filters. When he moved to Tokyo Institute of Technology, he started the research on the spontaneous emission control in microcavities and vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs). In 1991, he reported the calculation of spontaneous emission factor in VCSELs. In 1993, he achieved the first room temperature continuous wave (cw) operation of VCSELs for fiber communications using circular planar buried heterostructure epitaxy and a high Q dielectric cavity with Si/MgO thermal conductive mirror. Currently, his main interests are photonic crystals and nanocavities. In 1997, he realized the smallest laser diodes so far reported and achieved the record low threshold operation in the longer wavelength range using the microdisk cavity. Now he holds the world record low threshold of 40 mA by current injection and 11 mW by photo-pumping in this wavelength range at room temperature under cw condition. In 1999, he successfully observed the light propagation in photonic crystal waveguides, for the first time. He also reported various activities on photonic crystals including light emitters, filters, slow light devices, nonlinear devices, numerical simulations, etc. Recently, his research also focuses on optical interconnection based on Si photonic wire waveguides, free space optical computing systems with novel smart pixels, and micro-electro-mechanical system devices.
He is a member of IEICE, JSAP, IEEE/LEOS, AIP/APS, OSA and IEE. He has been authors of more than 100 journal papers, a short course lecturer on photonic crystals at LEOS Annual Meeting from 2003-2005 and invited speakers of more than 50 international conferences. He received The Niwa Memorial Prize in 1991, The Encouragement Award and The Paper Award both from IEICE in 1994, The Best Paper Award of Microoptic Conference in 1993 and 1999, The Marubun Research Encouragement Award in 200, etc. He was elected IEEE LEOS Distinguished Lecturer for 2006-07.
Abstract: How to go about starting a company in the current environment.
Bio: Milton Chang is Managing Director of Incubic Venture Fund which is actively investing in technology startup businesses. He was CEO and President of Newport Corporation and New Focus, Inc., and currently sits on the board of Opvista. Dr. Chang earned a BS with highest honors from the University of Illinois, and MS and Ph.D. degrees from the California Institute of Technology, all in electrical engineering. He is a Fellow of the Optical Society of America and the Laser Institute of America, and a former president of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society and the LIA. He has received a number of prestigious awards including the Distinguished Alumni Award from both universities; he is on the Board of Trustees of Caltech and a member of the Committee of 100. He writes monthly columns for the Laser Focus World and Photonic Spectra magazines. Visit www.incubic.com for more details.
Abstract: We will present a novel concept for low cost solar energy production using silicon nanotechnology. With a mix of nanotechnology, proven silicon reliability, and ink formulations, the company is developing a low-cost manufacturing platform to reduce the cost of producing electricity compared to current technologies. We will examine the promise of taking current polysilicon-based solar cells (90 percent of market today) to a completely new level of cost. The high cost of production of solar cells today (even with heavy subsidies) has been one of the major factors inhibiting the overall growth of solar energy as a market. Our silicon nanocrystalline ink holds the promise to bring the cost of solar panels to an order of magnitude lower than today's polysilicon technology.
Bio: Homer Antoniadis, PhD, is the Chief Technology Officer at Innovalight, Inc., a venture-funded technology startup developing disrupting solar power generating products based on nanosized silicon. Prior to Innovalight, Homer was the Head of OLED product development at OSRAM Opto Semiconductors Inc. and the Program Director for developing organic light emitting sources. He held positions at Xerox Corporation and as a principal research engineer/member of the OLED team at Hewlett-Packard Labs. He is widely recognized as a regular invited lecturer and conference chair at leading industry events. Homer has more than 50 publications in photovoltaics, OLEDs, polymer materials and amorphous silicon and has 17 issued US patents. Homer has a PhD and MS in Physics from Syracuse University and a BS in Physics from Ioannina University, Greece.
Abstract: Reliable, high power AlGaInAs diode lasers were pioneered in the 1990's to pump Er-doped fiber amplifiers for telecom applications. A favorable business climate, ample investment and a seemingly limitless thirst for higher pump power drove the technology and economics forward at a Moore's law-type pace. The telecom bust induced high-end vendors to offer their wares to industrial customers. The first half of this talk reviews the technical developments in near-infrared diode lasers over the past two decades, and forecasts what may come next. The second half examines the trend of "telecom-grade" diode laser vendors applying their know-how to industrial, and eventually consumer applications.
Bio: Toby Strite is Manager of High Power Laser Marketing for JDS Uniphase in Milpitas, CA, having previously held JDSU marketing positions in Switzerland, Poland and England. Prior to joining JDSU in 1998, Dr. Strite was employed from 1993 as a Research Staff Member at IBM's Zurich Research Laboratory, where he investigated various optoelectronic technologies for telecommunications, display and lighting applications. Dr. Strite graduated from Bucknell University and earned his PhD in Physics at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He is the author of > 100 scientific and popular articles, holder of four US patents, has five citations for excellence in technical communication, and is a longtime member of the Editorial Boards of Laser Focus World and Compound Semiconductor magazines.
Dr. Charles Townes and his wife were photoed post-event with SCV-LEOS officers at PARC Auditorium. From left: Chair Brent Whitlock, Vice-Chair Bob Herrick, Program Chair Ram Sivaraman, Dr. Charles Townes, Mrs. Townes, Treasurer Bill Murray, and Secretary Min Hua.
Abstract: Recently, there has been a growing interest in optofluidics, the combination of microfluidics and optics on a single chip. A new approach to this field has been developed based on liquid-core antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides (ARROWs). These waveguides can simultaneously guide both liquids and light and have the potential for creating fully planar optofluidic systems with ultrahigh sensitivity. In this talk, Dr. Schmidt will review the physical principle and fabrication of hollow-core ARROWs. He will then describe their application to single-molecule spectroscopy. In particular, he will discuss the detection and manipulation of single biomolecules in an ARROW-based optofluidic device and the addition of nanoscale structures for enhanced functionality.
Bio: Holger Schmidt studies the fundamental physics of optical interactions between light and matter, with applications in the development of novel electronic and photonic devices. His research ` interests include integrated optofluidics for single molecule studies and biomedical applications, nano-magneto-optics, atomic spectroscopy on a chip, and nonlinear optics.
Dr. Schmidt earned a diploma in physics from the University of Stuttgart, Germany, and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in electrical and computer engineering from UC Santa Barbara. Before joining the UCSC faculty, he was a postdoctoral fellow in the semiconductor laser group at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Since his arrival at UCSC in 2001, Dr. Schmidt received an NSF Career Award in 2001, and a Keck Futures Nano Award in 2005.
Bio: Mehdi Vaez-Iravani received his B.Sc. and Ph.D. Degrees from University College London. His doctoral work was on high sensitivity optical and photothermal imaging techniques. He subsequently joined Philips Laboratories s in Briarcliff Manor, New York, to work on new ways of producing video signals and images. In 1989 he joined the faculty of the Center for Imaging Science, Rochester Institute of Technology, where he worked on new high resolution imaging techniques, including near-field scanning optical and novel force microscopes. In 1995 he joined Tencor Instruments (later KLA-Tencor, after merger with KLA), to work on next generation defect inspection systems. For a short period he was with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena to work on in-situ instrumentation for the detection of life, as well as on space interferometry. He re-joined KLA-Tencor in 2000, where he is currently a Senior Vice President. He was named the first KLA-Tencor Fellow in 2005. He now heads KT-Labs.
Abstract: Dense wavelength division multiplexed (DWDM) large-scale, single-chip transmitter and receiver photonic integrated circuits (PICs) capable of each operating at 100Gbit/s have been deployed in the field in Infinera Optical Transport Equipment since the end of 2004. These highly integrated InP chips have significantly changed the design and performance of long haul optical transport networks. First, a review of the 10 channel, 100Gbit/s PIC is presented. Then two extensions of the technology are demonstrated; first is the wide temperature, colerless operation of the 100Gbit/s PIC, and secondly a single integrated chip with 40 channels each operating at 40Gbit/s capable of an aggregate data rate of 1.6Tbit/s.
These advances in photonic integration should be viewed in light of what is otherwise commercially available; single channel transmitters with up to 6 elements to provide for wavelength tunability and high speed data modulation. In contrast the 10 channel, 100Gbit/s transmitter PIC's from Infinera currently in deployment have over 50 elements and the 1.6Tbit/s capable transmitter PIC in development has over 240 elements.
Bio: Upon finishing his Ph.D. in the area of carrier transport effects in high speed quantum well lasers, Radha Nagarajan spent two years as a research faculty at the University of California, Santa Barbara, working on, among other things, microwave fiber optic links. He subsequently joined SDL in 1995. He first worked on the development of high speed fiber optic links for wide temperature range operation (-55°C to 125°C) in space and other harsh environments. He later managed the development of the new generation high power, 980nm single mode pump modules for EDFA applications. The 300mW pump module won the Photonics Circle of Excellence Award in 2000. At the time of being acquired by JDS Uniphase, he was a Senior Manager with the Advanced Technology Group working on the development of next generation high speed optical components. In May 2001, he joined Infinera in Sunnyvale, CA, where he is currently the Director of Advanced Development for photonic integrated circuits. He has authored/co-authored over 100 publications in journals and conferences, and three book chapters mainly in the area of high speed optical components.
Radha Nagarajan obtained his B.Eng. (First Class Honors) degree in Electrical Engineering from the National University of Singapore where he studied under the Government of Singapore Undergraduate Merit Scholarship. He was then awarded the Hitachi Foundation Scholarship to study at the University of Tokyo, Japan, where he obtained his M.Eng. degree in Electronic Engineering. He obtained his Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering from the University of California, Santa Barbara, where he was awarded the General Affiliates Dissertation (Ph.D.) Fellowship.
He is a Fellow of the Optical Society of America (OSA) and a Senior Member of IEEE/LEOS. He was co-recipient of the 2006 IEEE LEOS Aron Kressel Award "In recognition of breakthrough work in the development and manufacturing of Large Scale Photonic Integrated Circuit", along with Charles Joyner and Richard Schneider.
Abstract: The total optoelectronics components and enabled products grew 20% in 2005 to $364 billion, from $304 billion in 2004. Components grew 17% in 2005 to $104 billion, from $89 billion in 2004. When flat panel displays are excluded as components, components grew 10% in 2005 to $30 billion, from $27 billion in the previous year. Enabled products grew 21% to $260 billion in 2005, from $215 billion in 2004. The driving engine for these numbers has again been the successful penetration of display-based products and technologies into both the consumer and computer markets, as it was in 2004. The products with the strongest growth were liquid crystal display (LCD) TVs (79%) and camera phones/personal digital assistants (PDA) (41%). Within the components segment, much of the growth has been driven by solar cells (24%), display modules (20%), and sources and detectors (10%). The sources and detectors segment includes optoelectronics components with strong growth rates such as image sensors (26%), nondiode lasers (9%), and diode lasers (6%). All segments exhibited growth in 2005 except optical storage media, which declined (3%) due to strong competition. Optoelectronics technology has demonstrated remarkable flexibility in influencing new applications. Examples from 2005 include: The development of flat panel displays that are used in computers and television achieved $74 billion in 2005 growing nearly 20% over 2004, and is a good indicator that this is indeed a vibrant application. The use of small displays in mobile handheld devices has grown quickly and has opened up new opportunities. Optoelectronic packaging has leveraged this market especially the innovations around the use of HBLED as backlighting. The development of high-brightness light emitting diodes (HB LED) is expected to provide new market opportunities in large signs, signals, general illumination, and in the automotive segment for both passenger and industrial vehicles. The use of HB LEDs for backlighting displays, especially small displays for handhelds, is growing quickly and allowing the innovation of ceramic materials to be used in thermally sensitive packaging platforms. The imaging array sensor has enabled digital cameras and the technology is placing strong pressure on the traditional photography industry. The camera phone is one area that grew quickly in 2005 and is providing an opportunity to leverage digital technology in different applications. As cameras in mobile phones are becoming popular, the use of white HB LEDs for camera flash to replace filament flash expected to become the norm in 2006. Diode lasers were historically designed for optical communications. With the growth in diode laser-based optical storage, however, product revenue has now exceeded those for the more expensive communications lasers. Advances in optical disk technology with blue diode lasers are expected to fuel the growth of DVD players. Optical storage pricing for standard compact disc (CD) and digital versatile disc (DVD) lasers suffered in 2005 and affected revenue growth. Recent OIDA workshops on 100Gbps and micro-optoelectronic packaging are beginning to bring the commercial industry together to address high performance, low cost integrated packaging issues. A number of integrated technical solutions both at the device and packaging level have opened new opportunities at 100Gbps data rates. In conclusion, the optoelectronics is quickly penetrating a number of products across many markets, with a trend toward convergence. Optoelectronics technologies are utilized in products that span communications, computing, and consumer/entertainment. A significant enabler driving convergence is the LCD flat panel display, which is today found not only in notebook personal computers (PC), but also in televisions, mobile cellular phones, PDAs, and desktop monitors. A number of specific types of applications that are particularly dependent upon optoelectronics have strong potential for market growth in 2006. These include the Internet and computing, cellular telephony, wireline telecommunications, and emerging applications such as games, healthcare, and sensors.
Bio: Michael Lebby, OIDA's former executive director, was elected as the new president and CEO of OIDA on February 17, 2006. His career has spanned all aspects of the optoelectronics business ranging from research and development, manufacturing, and finance, to sales, marketing, and investing. He holds more than 170 U.S. patents issued in optoelectronics. In 1985, Lebby's research took him to AT&T Bell Laboratories, followed in 1989 by a move to Motorola's Phoenix Corporate Research Laboratory in Phoenix, Arizona. Early in 1997, he became an R&D Business Technology Development Manager where he managed all aspects of advanced technologies in corporate R&D. In 1998, Lebby joined AMP as a member of the Global Optoelectronics Division's management team. At AMP he was responsible for growing the fiber optic datacom and telecom business through external interactions that included mergers, acquisitions strategic alliances, and technical strategic planning. During the summer of 1999, Lebby joined Intel as a corporate investor and was responsible for sourcing, negotiating, and closing private placement equity deals in the optical networking, component, and semiconductor arenas. In 2001, Lebby founded a new fiber optics company, Ignis Optics, where he served as the CEO, President, and Board Member in addition to acting VP of Sales, Marketing and Business Director during the growth phases. Ignis Optics was acquired by Bookham Technology in October 2003 and Lebby became responsible for corporate and technical strategy at Bookham Technology. Dr. Lebby joined OIDA as Executive Director in early 2005. He was elected an IEEE Fellow for contributions to optoelectronics technology.