2009 Events

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December 15, 2009: Joint Meeting with SCV-SSCS Chapter "Origami Holiday Lecture and Class" by Dr. Robert Lang

Our December meeting has traditionally been something the whole family could come and enjoy, but with a scientific angle to it. Origami, for those who aren't familiar with it, is the ancient Japanese art making objects through paper folding designs, from one piece of paper, usually with no cuts. In more recent years, computer programs have allowed folding diagrams to be developed for arbitrarily designed objects: something our speaker has helped to advance.

Robert Lang has made his living over the past 8 years as one of the world's more famous origami artists, making folded artworks for art collectors, television commercials, and working with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on how to fold a collapsible telescope lens, among other projects. In his spare time, he is the Editor-in-Chief of the IEEE Photonics Society's most established publication: the Journal of Quantum Electronics. He also continues to stay involved in laser projects through consulting assignments and in 2009 received Caltech's highest honor, the Distinguished Alumni Award.

Our Chapter Chair Bob Herrick followed Robert's work back 17 years ago when he was doing semiconductor laser research at Spectra Diode Labs, where he worked his way to the position of VP of R&D. He's been asked to start out the presentation with a discussion of how he went from SDL during the crazy telecom boom and bust, to becoming a professional origami artist. He will follow with material from his famous presentation, "From Flapping Birds to Space Telescopes: the Modern Science of Origami", which has been delivered at universities, companies, and museums worldwide, and is available in abbreviated form below in the TED video link. In addition, he will include a live demonstration, and handouts so you can try your hand at folding yourself. He had authored, coauthored, or edited 9 books on origami, including his latest, "Origami4", which explores connections between origami, math, science, technology, and education. We will be giving a few books away to lucky raffle winners.

Come join us for this holiday celebration, and bring friends and family! Sign up in advance is required, since capacity crowds are expected.

Links to the work of Dr. Robert Lang:

Dr. Robert Lang

Bio: Robert J. Lang received his BS from Caltech, MS from Stanford, and Ph.D. from Caltech. After a postdoc at Standard Elektrik Lorenz AG, he worked at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory carrying out research on semiconductor lasers and optoelectronics. In 1992 he joined Spectra Diode Laboratories, where he led research on high-power lasers including unstable resonator diode lasers, high-power DFBs, tunable lasers and others, eventually becoming Vice-President of Research and Development. In 2000, he took over Component Packaging Development for SDL, Inc., developing and delivering Telcordia-qualified high-power pump laser modules to manufacturing and sale. In 2001, he left SDL (then JDSU) to focus on his long-time passion, origami, an art in which he is a recognized world master. Since then he has divided his time between exhibitions, writing, and lecturing on origami and its underlying mathematics in forums both artistic and technical, and consulting in lasers and optoelectronics, most recently in the area of speckle-based position sensors. He is the author or co-author of 80 refereed papers and over 50 patents awarded and pending. In 2009 he was awarded Caltech's highest honor, the Distinguished Alumni Award. He is a member of the IEEE Photonics Society, a Fellow of the Optical Society of America, and the current Editor-in-Chief of the IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics.

November 3, 2009: "Molecularly Engineered Semiconductor Cluster Nanocomposites for Advanced Photonics" by Dr. Ron Kubacki, Ionic Systems

From a systems level it is impossible to differentiate efficiency in the electrical domain from the optical domain if photonics are incorporated. Planar waveguide devices and active components, such as modulators, that require high operating powers, waveguide structures that dissipate more optical energy than they transport, and materials/processes that are incapable of presenting an efficient path to higher levels of integration present significant challenges. Molecular engineering enables materials with lower propagation losses and higher performance/more energy efficient active photonic devices to be fabricated. Dr. Kubacki previously reported on work using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) for active and passive photonics. This presentation will update work in two key areas: 1) material and process development for ultra low loss photonic waveguides and 2) results in material development for active device fabrication, particularly large χ² effects. Results presented in both areas are believed to represent the current state of the art for loss and electro optic activity produced by any material.

The approach is a self assembled silicon quantum cluster (SQC) nanocomposite which possesses unique applicability to the construction of microphotonic circuits. Through exposure to deep ultraviolet radiation, large changes in as deposited index of refraction can be induced (i.e. > 1.0). The high contrast possible with the process permits core and cladding index contrast optimization. Reduction of losses in the SQC material focused on investigation of precursors and binding matrix formation. Non linear optical properties were researched by altering the size and density of semiconductor clusters and stroichiometry changes to the binding matrix. Upon exposure to deep ultraviolet radiation in the presence of oxygen, as supplied by air for example, surface states of semiconductor quantum clusters are altered producing a reduction in index of refraction. The large index contrast a permits local trimming of index of refraction to optimize photonic structure fabrication. No other material set has demonstrated the index contrast range of the SQC nanocomposite. Losses measured here were studied relative to index contrast between core and cladding. The process investigated further examined host matrix formation using a lower loss halogenated material. Ron will update work that has produced on chip waveguides with losses of 0.445 dB/m and their use in integrated photonic devices.

Small semiconductor clusters of silicon have been the subject of a number of theoretical and experimental studies. Several of the smaller silicon clusters are calculated to be polar, with dipole moments of several tenths to several Debye. Si3 exhibits suitable weak polar nature to explore optical nonlinearities, and was self assembled into the binding matrix in the PECVD reactor. No cluster alignment was used during deposition for results presented here although it is available to increase the effect. SQC alignment impact on r33 was studied by applying a DC bias during r33 measurement. Initial r33 measurements were 342.16 pm/V. Dr. Kubacki will report on the current development which has produced r33 of 1285.73 pm/V. Ron will briefly discuss applications, primarily for the military /aerospace customer, that combine both the ultra low loss waveguide with the active NLO material. Theoretical calculations predict that larger clusters, up to Si19, can have an order of magnitude greater response than Si3 and are currently under investigation. The computed polarizabilities per atom tend to decrease with increasing cluster size beyond approximately twenty atom cluster size and represents the upper theoretical limit at this time.

Bio: After receiving his doctorate in Physics from the University of Surrey in 1976, Dr. Kubacki held positions at Bell & Howell, NASA, Armorlite, and Tencor before founding Ionic Systems in 1979. He has worked in semiconductor processing equipment development and thin film research including PECVD apparatus and materials development for nearly 30 years. He has guided research programs in materials and device development undertaken by Ionic Systems for commercial and government customers including Northrop Grumman, Raytheon, Hughes Radar Systems Group, Lockheed Missiles and Space, Missile Defense Agency, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, DARPA, US Air Force, US Navy, U.S. Army, SPAWARS, and Department of Energy. His current focus is on the use of PECVD to molecularly engineer materials and develop manufacturing processes to enable innovative devices for photonics, microelectronics, and their monolithic integration. He has published over 25 technical papers, holds over ten sole inventor patents and received multiple certificates of recognition from NASA while a Visiting Executive from Industry employed by Bell and Howell. He is a member of IEEE, SPIE, OSA, and MRS. He chaired the Integrated Optoelectronics Session at the 2006 Annual IEEE LEOS meeting, Montreal, CN.

October 7, 2009: Annual Field Trip: "Tour of Applied Materials' Facilities for Display and Solar Applications" by Charlie Gay, President of Applied Solar, Applied Materials, Inc., & Tak Tanaka, Senior Director of Display Division, AKT / Applied Materials

Abstract: For this year's field trip, we want to see some of the biggest vacuum equipment commercially available, for display and solar applications. The display equipment goes up to Generation 10, which uses glass approximately 2.9m x 3.1m (9'x10') in size, and can make 15 x 42" displays on a single sheet.

The solar panels made by AKT equipment are the largest in the world, with 5.7m2 panels (2.2m x 2.6m). Come see them for yourself!

Building 93 is the primary manufacturing location for Applied Materials display products in the US. Activities in Building 93 consist primarily of the assembly and test of process chambers for AKT PECVD systems. We will also be visiting Building 92 which is the AKT Applications Lab. The AKT Applications lab is the primary research and development center in the US for both Display and Thin Film solar products. It currently has test stands for every generation of display products from generation 2 to generation 10. A test stand consists of a process chamber and manual load lock.

Also in the Apps lab is the test stand for PECVD thin film solar. The lab provides equipment for development of new generation of hardware and processes as well as a location to provide demo's for customers interested in our equipment.

A display tool from Gen 8.5, capable of making 6 x 55" displays on a single sheet of glass.


Dr. Charlie Gay
Dr. Charlie Gay was named President, Applied Solar and Chairman of the Applied Solar Council in 2009. As President of Applied Solar, Dr. Gay is responsible for positioning Applied and our solar efforts with important stakeholders in the industry, technical community and particularly governments around the world. As Chairman of the Applied Solar Council, Dr. Gay leads a cross-company forum to assure cohesiveness on solar-related initiatives and strategy related to technology, and market development. An industry veteran with over 30 years of experience in the solar industry, Dr. Gay joined Applied Materials in 2006 as Corporate Vice President, General Manager of the Solar Business Group.

Dr. Gay is also a co-founder of the Greenstar Foundation, an organization that delivers solar power and internet access for health, education and microenterprise projects to small villages in the developing world. Greenstar has been recognized for its innovation by the World Bank, the Stockholm Challenge, the Technology Empowerment Network and the Tech Museum Awards.

Dr. Gay began his career in 1975 designing solar power system components for communications satellites at Spectrolab, Inc. and later joined ARCO Solar, where he established the research and development program and led the commercialization of single crystal silicon and thin film technologies. In 1990, Dr. Gay became president and chief operating officer of Siemens Solar Industries and from 1994 to 1997, he served as Director of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory, the world's leading laboratory for energy efficiency and renewable energy research and technology. In 1997, Dr. Gay served as president and chief executive officer of ASE Americas, Inc., and in 2001 became chairman of the advisory board at SunPower Corporation.

Dr. Gay has a doctorate degree in physical chemistry from the University of California, Riverside. He holds numerous patents for solar cell and module construction and is the recipient of the Gold Medal for Achievement from the World Renewable Energy Congress.

Tak Tanaka
Mr. Tak Tanaka has been a Senior Director and Chief Marketing Officer of Global Marketing and Business Management, Applied Materials' Display Business Group, AKT* since 2007. Mr. Tanaka manages the global marketing functions for the display group, including global business planning and development and strategic marketing. He is also the product manager for the leading Applied AKT-PECVD (plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition) systems.

Mr. Tanaka joined AKT in 1994 as part of the joint venture with Komatsu Ltd., where he has held progressively more responsible positions in the manufacturing and marketing groups.

Prior to joining AKT, Mr. Tanaka held positions in manufacturing engineering and supplier management at Komatsu, Ltd. Mr. Tanaka holds a Bachelor of Science in Legal Studies from Keio University, Japan.

* AKT a leader in the manufacturing of large area equipment used in TFT-LCD production and is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Applied Materials, Inc. since 1999.

September 1, 2009: "'Virtual Tour' of the National Ignition Facility" by Dr. Jeff Wisoff, National Ignition Facility


The National Ignition Facility (NIF), the world's largest and highest-energy laser system, is now fully operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). NIF is now being prepared to begin ignition experiments with the goal of demonstrating laser-driven inertial confinement fusion ignition and fusion energy gain in the laboratory for the first time. This presentation will feature photos and videos showing the interior of NIF and descriptions of how NIF works and its important missions in national security, energy security and basic science.

Bio: Dr. Peter J.K. "Jeff" Wisoff is the Deputy Principal Associate Director in the NIF & Photon Science Directorate at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A former NASA astronaut and veteran of four Space Shuttle flights, Jeff completed his BS in physics from UVa in '80 and MS/PhD in applied physics from Stanford in '82 and '86 respectively. He came to LLNL and NIF in the fall of 2001 as a deputy associate project manager for systems engineering. In 2003, he became the associate project manager for small optical systems on NIF, which included responsibility for the front end of the laser and laser diagnostics. Jeff currently serves as the principal deputy in the management of the NIF and Photon Science Directorate.

August 19, 2009: Joint Meeting with SCV-Nano Chapter "Sub-wavelength Dielectric Gratings: A New Handle On Light" by Dr. David Fattal, Staff Researcher, HP Labs

Abstract: Dielectric gratings exhibiting resonance phenomena have been studied since the early 90's, offering a new paradigm for optical filtering and sensing. More recently, they have been proposed as an interesting alternative to DBR stacks to realize high quality reflectors, for use e.g. in VCSELs. Our team at HP Labs is pushing the resonance grating concept even further. We discovered that a non-periodic resonance grating can offer an unprecedented level of control over an optical beam - acting like a high reflectivity mirror or a high transmission lens with the ability to alter the phase front of the beam in an arbitrary way.

In this talk, Dr. Fattal will review the main physics behind sub-wavelength resonance gratings, and will explain this novel phase front control concept, illustrated by some recent experimental results of a "planar" cylindrical and spherical mirror.

Bio: Dr. Fattal is a Staff Researcher in the Information and Quantum Science Lab at HP Labs, where he works on nanophotonics for classical and quantum information processing. His present research interests and projects include:

He holds a Ph.D. from Stanford and a BS in Mathematical Physics from Ecole Polytechnique in France. He is the recipient of the 2001 Carnot Foundation Prize.

August 4, 2009: "Advanced lithography techniques for 22nm half-pitch and beyond" by Dr. Yashesh A. Shroff, Intel

Abstract: Immersion lithography has become the mainstay of 45nm and below half-pitch nodes, having overcome a number of challenges on the way to high volume manufacturing. Significantly, extensions to immersion such as double-exposure and double patterning have shown capability to reach up to 22nm HP node and perhaps even lower. In this talk, I will focus on providing an overview of double-patterning techniques, modeling results, overlay challenge, cost, and computational lithography approaches. A brief comparison with other exciting competing patterning technologies such as EUV and nano-imprint will be provided to help set baseline.

Bio: Yashesh A. Shroff completed his BS in EE from UT Austin in '97 and MS/PhD from UC Berkeley in '99 and 2003 respectively. His main area of interest is maskless lithography based on a variety of direct write technologies such as modulating large micromirror arrays. Since 2003, Yashesh has been a litho engineer at Intel Corp where he is involved in the development of next generation lithography. His current focus is on immersion double patterning techniques and moving EUV lithography towards a high volume manufacturing platform.

June 2, 2009: "Where in the nano-world is lithography taking us?" by Dr. Harry J. Levinson, GLOBALFOUNDRIES

Abstract: For decades, patterns of integrated circuits have been fabricated using optical lithography using near- to deep-ultraviolet light. However, this method is approaching fundamental physical limits, in terms of the ability to print dense patterns directly. The reasons for this are described, and the outlook for some of the alternatives currently being serious consideration, such as double patterning and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, are discussed. Included in the discussion will be economic as well as technical issues.

Bio: Harry J. Levinson is a Sr. Fellow and manager of GLOBALFOUNDRIES's Strategic Lithography Technology Department, which is responsible for advanced lithographic processes and equipment. Dr. Levinson started his career in Bipolar Memory Development at AMD, then spent some time at Sierra Semiconductor and IBM, before returning to AMD - now GLOBALFOUNDRIES - in 1994. During the course of his career, Dr. Levinson has applied lithography to many different technologies, including bipolar memories, 64Mb and 256Mb DRAM development, the manufacturing of applications-specific integrated circuits, thin film heads for magnetic recording, flash memories and advanced logic. He was one of the first users of 5 steppers in Silicon Valley and was an early participant in 248 nm and 193 nm lithography. Dr. Levinson also served for several years as the chairman of the USA Lithography Technology Working Group that participates in the generation of the lithography chapter of the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors. He has published numerous articles on lithographic science, on topics ranging from thin film optical effects and metrics for imaging, to overlay and process control, and he is the author of two books, Lithography Process Control and Principles of Lithography. He holds over 40 US patents. Dr. Levinson is an SPIE Fellow and chairs the SPIE Publications Committee. He has a BS in engineering from Cornell University and a PhD in Physics from the University of Pennsylvania.

May 5, 2009: "Recent Advances in Coherent Receiver Design for High Speed Long Haul Optical Communications" by Dr. Christian Malouin, Opnext Subsystem

Abstract: Recent advances in coherent receiver design applied to high speed (40Gbps and 100Gbps) core optical communications networks will be presented, along with a brief historical overview. Specific modulation formats, combined with coherent detection and digital signal processing, will be shown to meet the requirements of modern optical communications networks. One such format receiving considerable attention is coherent polarization-multiplexed quaternary phase-shift keying (PM-QPSK). The theory of operation of PM-QPSK employing a polarization-diversity coherent receiver with digital finite-impulse-response equalizer and carrier phase estimation will be explained and the performance of state of the art R&D efforts will be discussed. Finally, we will review the importance of photonics integration in making mass production coherent products a reality.

Bio: Christian Malouin (SM'09) received the Ph.D. degree in physics and optics from the Université Laval, Québec, QC, Canada, in 1996 and the Postdoctoral degree from the Université Paris XI, Orsay, France, where he focused on the characterization of magneto-optical recording media using ultra-fast second order nonlinear effects.

During his Ph.D. dissertation, he developed a novel geometry of four-wave mixing to characterize fast optical nonlinear media. In 1998, he joined Nortel Networks, where he worked on high capacity transmission systems from 40 to 100 Gb/s. In September 2000, he joined Innovance Networks, where he helped in the design and development of an ultralong-haul all-transparent optical network. Since August 2005, he has been with Opnext Subsystem (formely StrataLight Communications), Los Gatos, CA, where he is currently responsible for the modeling, verification, and prototyping of the optical architecture of existing products and forward-looking products. In particular, his research focuses on transmitter and receiver design/modeling and on the study of advanced modulation formats at high speed using direct detection and coherent schemes.

April 21, 2009: Joint Meeting with SCV-Nano Chapter "Nanotechnology enabled Solid State Lighting for Today and Tomorrow" by Dr. Jeff Ramer, Senior Scientist, BridgeLux, Inc.

Abstract: High power light emitting diodes (LEDs) emitting white light are now being adopted for various illumination applications such as downlight, street lighting, as well as incandescent and halogen bulb replacements. The white LED consists of a sophisticated blue-emitting GaN-based multi-quantum well LED and a phosphor-containing overlayer for down-conversion of blue into yellow emission. Various aspects of nanoscaled device designs will be discussed for the production of high efficiency white LEDs.

Bridgelux is the first, new US-based light-emitting diode (LED) chip company in the past 20 years. The Company's focus is bringing innovation to light by providing high power, energy-efficient and costeffective LED solutions. Bridgelux's technology replaces traditional lamp and luminaire technologies (such as incandescent, halogen and fluorescent lighting solutions) with solid-state products that provide high performance and energy-efficient white light for general lighting applications. Bridgelux's current and future-generation products support global clean energy initiatives by reducing energy consumption and offering environmentally friendly solutions.

Bio: Jeff received his B.S. in Physics (with honors) in 1992 from California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA, and in 1997, he earned his Ph.D. from the University of New Mexico for work in the area of MOCVD growth and characterization of InGaN based materials. That same year, Jeff joined the technical staff of Emcore Corporation in Somerset NJ as a staff scientist. After two years of research in various III-V materials, he began development work on the E300 scale GaN MOCVD reactor, later known as 'GaNzilla' Emcore sold the Turbodisc division to Veeco Instruments in late 2003, and he subsequently focused on a more advanced version of this reactor, which addressed issues of non-uniformity in the GaN and InGaN materials. This new design enabled a Turbodisc GaN platform to achieve record uniformity for the critical InGaN active region which dramatically improved yield of LED devices.

April 8, 2009: Joint Meeting with SCV-CPMT "Flexible Displays: Manufacturing Issues and Solutions" by Dr. Paul S. Drzaic, Drzaic Consulting Services and President of SID

Abstract: In this talk I will describe a short history of flexible electronic displays, some of the technical approaches towards achieving flexibility using both silicon-based and organic-based materials, with particular focus on manufacturing issues associated with flexible electronic displays.

Despite the fact that plastic-based electronic displays were demonstrated around 30 years ago, there are still few commercial examples of flexible electronic displays. Therefore, I will also discuss some of the issues that have slowed adoption of flexible displays in the marketplace, and some technical and market challenges to enable these technologies to flourish.

Bio: Paul S. Drzaic is Principal at Drzaic Consulting Services, providing expert assistance to organizations in areas of flat panel display technology. He is a Fellow of the SID, and is serving as President of the SID. Previously, he has held positions as Chief Technology Officer at Unidym, Inc., Vice President for Advanced Development Programs at Alien Technology Corporation, Director of Technology at E Ink Corporation, and Principal Scientist at Raychem Corporation. Much of Drzaic's professional career has been in the development of flexible electronic technologies. He is the author of a book, 19 journal publications, and 55 US patents. He is a winner of the 2002 National Team Innovation Award from the American Chemical Society, as well as an Editor's Choice award for the R&D 100 awards for 2001. He is Chair of the Editorial Board for the MRS Bulletin. Dr Drzaic has a PhD from Stanford University.

April 7, 2009: "Nonlinear optical crystals for use in consumer laser projection displays" by Dr. Dieter Jundt, Crystal Technology, Inc.

Abstract: RGB laser displays offer several advantages over currently available display types. The color gamut is larger than in CRT, LED or Plasma systems, offering more vibrant colors. The low étendue of lasers simplifies the imaging optics, may even eliminate the need for focusing, and enables small handheld projectors. While good quality red and blue lasers are available that can be modulated at the high speeds required for creating a grey-scale, this has not been the case for green lasers based on frequency-doubled DPSS lasers. Frequency doubling of diode lasers can address this shortcoming and various approaches are being pursued. Each of those approaches requires a nonlinear optical crystal that has good conversion efficiency and can be produced at low cost with good reproducibility. MgO doped lithium niobate is currently the favored crystal for this need. The talk will discuss crystal characterization techniques used to optimize the crystal growth process and address the challenges in scaling R&D processes to high volume production from crystal growth, periodic poling through device processing.

Bio: Dieter Jundt currently is Vice President of research and development at Crystal Technology, Inc. where he works towards improving the quality and manufacturability of nonlinear optical crystals while driving down cost. He grew up in Switzerland, received a Diploma degree in Physics from the Federal Polytechnic Institute in Zürich and a Ph.D. in Applied Physics at Stanford University in 1991. After a 2-year post-doc, he joined Crystal Tech where he held research as well as technical management positions focusing on material science, crystal growth, and acousto-optic devices. He has co-authored over 40 publications and holds several patents.

March 3, 2009: "Semiconductor-laser gain physics: all you want to know and more in 50 minutes" by Dr. Weng Chow, Sandia National Laboratories, IEEE LEOS Distinguished Lecturer

Abstract: This talk will start by sketching (with more pictures than equations) the formulation of a theory that is based on a systematic and consistent quantum mechanical description of a semiconductor laser medium. The physical insight gained from applying the theory will be discussed. Its accuracy and predictive capability will be demonstrated using examples ranging from microcavity lasers to wide-bandgap and quantum-dot lasers.

Bio: Weng Chow received the Ph.D. degree in physics from the University of Arizona. His dissertation work involved fluctuation phenomena in quantum optics. At present, he is Distinguished Member of the Technical Staff at Sandia National Laboratories. Weng Chow's primary research interest is in the application of microscopic theory to semiconductor laser device development. Some of this work is described in two texts, Semiconductor-Laser Physics and Semiconductor-Laser Fundamentals: Physics of the Gain Materials. His other interests include laser gyros, phased arrays, coupled lasers, quantum optics and optical ignition of pyrotechnics.

Weng Chow also holds the positions of Research Professor of Physics at Texas A&M University, Adjoint Professor of Optical Sciences at the University of Arizona and Honorary Professor of Physics at Cardiff University. He has served on the CLEO semiconductor laser program committee and is an associate editor of IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics. Weng Chow is a fellow of the Optical Society of America, and recipient of the Dept of Energy, Basic Energy Science/Material Science Award, the Alexander von Humboldt Senior Scientist Award and the LEOS Distinguished Lecturer Award.

February 3, 2009: "Hazardous substance detection for electronic materials using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS)" by Dr. Rick Russo, Applied Spectra, Inc.

Abstract: With recent adoption of RoHS (Restriction on Hazardous Substances) initiative by many Asian and European countries, electronic product manufacturers and their component suppliers are banned from using certain elemental and organic substances above the specified concentration. With far more extensive substance initiatives such as RoHS II and REACH on the horizon, it is becoming critical for the impacted industry to assess and define appropriate analytical technologies to monitor regulated hazardous elements and organic substances. Currently, common testing methodologies for RoHS elements such as lead, mercury, cadmium, and chromium include AA (Atomic Absorption), ICP-AES (Inductively Coupled Plasma - Atomic Emission Spectroscopy), and ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry). Disadvantages of these analytical methods are extensive sample preparation processes that often require dissolution of samples in acid solutions and low analysis throughput. Consequently, they are usually not the ideal analytical technologies that can be implemented on the production floor to check RoHS compliance for finished goods and raw materials. Other non-destructive analytical technique such as EDXRF (Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence) has been used as a screening technique for RoHS compliance testing. However, EDXRF has been documented to suffer from poor precision performance for analysis involving small spots and challenging sample structures involving multi-layer stacks, thin plating, and coating materials.

LIBS (Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) is a highly flexible analytical technology that may be applied to a wide range of sample matrices and sample structures. In LIBS, luminous, short-lived plasma is created on the sample surface by a focused laser beam and its emission spectra is analyzed to provide both qualitative and quantitative chemical compositional analysis. LIBS analysis time is instantaneous and can be readily combined with other manufacturing processes involving laser ablation, allowing real-time chemical composition feedback. LIBS can be an effective, alternative elemental analysis solution for RoHS compliance testing. Commercial LIBS systems are becoming adopted for RoHS compliance testing for semiconductor chip packaging materials. LIBS has significantly shortened the analysis time with detection limit approaching ppm level for most of RoHS elements. Recent innovation in LIBS technology now enables detection of halogen elements down to a few hundreds of ppm level, opposed to the percent level limit demonstrated by conventional LIBS detection configuration. Thus, LIBS can be highly effective analytical technique for fast, in-line RoHS and halogen free (Green) compliance verification. Today LIBS systems are being used to monitor trace level of RoHS regulated substance such as lead in thin tin plating of leadframes, solder balls of FPGA packages, plastic dies and mold of the chip packages as well as paint films on children's toy.

Bio: Dr. Rick Russo is the founder of Applied Spectra, Inc. (ASI) and A3 Technologies (A3) These companies design, fabricate, test and market advanced spectroscopic instrumentation for security, military and commercial applications. Dr. Russo has an international scientific reputation in chemistry and physics related to nanosecond and femtosecond laser-material-interactions, with almost 30 year experience in fluorescence, LIBS, Raman, ICP-MS, materials, and other technologies. Dr. Russo has a 27 year appointment at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. He is the founder and scientific director for the laser material interactions group, with programs in chemistry, materials science, lasers, spectroscopy, ultrasonics, imaging, and electronics. Dr. Russo is co-inventor of the nanowire laser, and developer of a real-time standoff laser ultrasonic sensor (R&D100 2006). He also is co-inventor of a process for ion nano-texturing (ITEX) thin-films, lead-inventor of the ion-assisted pulsed laser deposition (IBAD) process, and a pioneer in elucidating fundamental laser heating and laser ablation processes for chemical analysis. He has over 200 Scientific Publications; 45 Refereed Proceedings; 210 (98 Invited) Presentations, 9 Book Chapters and 8 Patents. Twelve students have received their PhD degree under his direction at the University of California, Berkeley. He also is a visiting scientist at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory where, amongst other achievements he established laser laboratories for ablation, LIBS, fluorescence and Raman in the Glen T. Seabourg Transactinium Institute. He got a BS in Chemistry from University of Florida and a PhD in Chemistry from Indiana University.

January 14, 2009: Joint meeting with SCV-CPMT "Microscope on a Chip - A Highly Compact and Lensless High Resolution Optofluidic Microscope (OFM)" by Xiquan Cui, Electrical Engineering at Caltech

Abstract: Low cost and high resolution on-chip microscopes are vital for reducing cost and improving efficiency for modern biomedicine and bioscience. Despite the needs, the conventional microscope design has proven difficult to miniaturize. I will present our work on the first implementation and application of two high resolution, lensless and fully on-chip microscopes based on the optofluidic microscopy (OFM) method. These systems abandon the conventional microscope design, which requires expensive lenses and large space to magnify images, and instead utilizes microfluidic flow to deliver specimens across array(s) of micron-size apertures defined on a metal-coated CMOS sensor to generate direct projection images. The first system utilizes a gravity driven microfluidic flow for sample scanning and is suited for imaging elongate objects, such as Caenorhabditis elegans; and the second system employs an electrokinetic drive for flow control and is suited for imaging cells and other spherical/ellipsoidal objects. The optofluidic microscope design, readily fabricable with existing semiconductor and microfluidic technologies, offers low cost and highly compact imaging solutions. More functionalities, such as on-chip phase and fluorescence imaging, can also be readily adapted into OFM systems. We anticipate the OFM can significantly address a range of biomedical and bioscience needs as well as engender new microscope applications.

Bio: Mr. Xiquan Cui is currently a PhD candidate of Electrical Engineering at Caltech. He obtained his B.E. and M.S. of Optical & Electrical Engineering from Zhejiang University, China in 2003, and obtained his M.S. of Physics from Portland State University in 2005. He was interested in many research areas, and worked on a variety of projects on electronics, optics, MEMS and nanotechnology. At present, he is working on developing innovative bio-imaging techniques at the Biophotonics group of Caltech.