Short Course Program
An excellent set of short courses will be given at the start of the
NSS/MIC programs, covering a wide range of nuclear and medical
technology. The courses are one or two days long. They include lunch,
refreshments, lecture notes, and a certificate of completion as part
of the registration fee. Coffee and
pastry will be available to students at 8 am before the first lecture
at 8:30 am.
Course fees are valid for registrations received by Oct. 12.
Add $50 per course for on-site registration.
† Textbook included.
‡ Textbook purchased on site.
1. Radiation Detection and Measurement
- Glenn Knoll
This 2-day course provides an overall review of the basic principles that underlie the operation of the major types of instruments used in the detection and spectroscopy of charged particles, gamma rays, and other forms of ionizing radiation. Examples of both established applications and recent developments are drawn from areas including particle physics, nuclear medicine, homeland security, and general radiation spectroscopy. Emphasis is on understanding the fundamental processes that govern the operation of radiation detectors, rather than on operational details that are unique to specific commercial instruments. This course does not cover radiation dosimetry or health physics instrumentation. The level of presentation is best suited to those with some prior background in radiation measurements, but can also serve to introduce topics that may be outside their experience base. A copy of the textbook “Radiation Detection and Measurement”, 3rd Edition, by G. Knoll and a set of course notes are provided to registrants.
1. Gas-Filled Detectors
2. Scintillation Counters
3. Semiconductor Detectors
4. Front-end Electronics for Radiation Detectors
5. Recent Detector Developments and Summary
Graham C. Smith is a physicist in the Instrumentation Division at Brookhaven National Laboratory. He received a Ph.D in Physics from Durham University, England in 1974, followed by postdoctoral work in nuclear electronics and detector instrumentation for X-ray Astronomy at Leicester University. In 1982 he joined Brookhaven’s Instrumentation Division to participate in development of high accuracy position-sensitive detectors and electronics, becoming a tenured staff member in 1994. He received Brookhaven’s Research and Development Award in 1996, and the IEEE Long Island Regional Award for Contributions to High Energy Physics in 1998. He has an active research program in development of detectors, particularly gas-based detectors, for ionizing radiation measurement in synchrotron, neutron and particle physics experiments.
Stephen E. Derenzo is a Senior Scientist at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Head of the Medical Imaging Technology Department in the Life Sciences Division, and Professor-in-Residence in the Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department at UC Berkeley. He and his colleagues constructed two pioneering positron emission tomographs (PET) and developed advanced scintillation detectors for PET that provide high spatial resolution, depth-of-interaction information, and compact integrated circuit readout. For the past 19 years he has lead a search for new heavy scintillators and currently heads a project for the discovery of scintillation detector materials that uses automation to increase the rate of synthesis and characterization. He has authored or co-authored over 190 technical publications and seven patents. He has received two awards from the IEEE Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society: the Merit Award in 1992 and the Radiation Instrumentation Outstanding Achievement Award in 2001. He became an IEEE Fellow in 2000.
Eugene E. Haller is Professor of Materials Science at UC Berkeley and holds the Liao-Cho Innovation Endowed Chair and a joint appointment at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory where he heads the Electronic Materials Program. He received his Ph.D. degree in nuclear and applied physics from the University of Basel, Switzerland for surface studies of large volume p-i-n germanium diodes used as gamma-ray detectors. His research interests cover a wide spectrum of semiconductor topics including basic semiconductor physics, thin film and bulk crystal growth and advanced detectors for electromagnetic radiation ranging from the far-infrared to gamma rays. He has authored and co-authored over 800 scientific/technical publications. He is a fellow of the American Physical Society and AAAS, has won an Alexander von Humboldt U.S. Senior Scientist Award in 1986, two Miller Research Professorships in 1990 and 2001, the Max-Planck-Research Prize in 1994, the James McGroddy Prize for New Materials of the American Physical Society in March 1999 and the David Turnbull Lectureship Award of the Materials Research Society in 2005. He held visiting professorships at the Max-Planck-Institute for Solid State Research in Stuttgart, at the Imperial College in London, at the DLR (German Aerospace Corporation) in Berlin, at the Paul-Drude-Institute in Berlin and at the University of Münster, Münster, Germany. In 2004 he has been a Distinguished Professor at Keio University in Japan. He is a member of the Editorial Advisory Board of the "Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids," of "Materials Science Foundations" and of the "Journal of Applied Physics Reviews."
Helmuth Spieler is a Senior Physicist in the Physics Division of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. He received his Ph.D. in nuclear physics from the Technical University in Munich in 1974 and has worked in many areas of instrumentation, both as a user and a designer. Much of his instrumentation work has been on large-scale semiconductor detector systems and ASICs for high energy physics experiments at high-luminosity colliders. He has served on numerous review panels for major detectors in the U.S., Europe and Japan, both for ground and space-based experiments. He is internationally known for his tutorial courses on detectors and signal processing and is active in outreach projects with local high school science teachers. His current research centers on superconducting bolometer arrays for cosmic microwave background experiments (South Pole Telescope, APEX-SZ, PolarBear), radiation-resistant detectors and electronics for the Super LHC (ATLAS), and detector systems for nuclear non-proliferation monitoring. He is the author of the book Semiconductor Detector Systems published by Oxford University Press.
Glenn F. Knoll is Professor Emeritus of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences at the University of Michigan, maintaining an active schedule of participation in research, writing, and professional consulting. He joined the Michigan faculty in 1962, and served as Chairman of the Department of Nuclear Engineering from 1979 to 1990, and as Interim Dean of the College of Engineering in 1995-96. His research interests have centered on radiation measurements, nuclear instrumentation, and radiation imaging. He is author or co-author of over 200 technical publications, 7 patents, and 2 textbooks. In 1999 he was inducted to membership in the National Academy of Engineering. In 2000 he received the highest faculty award from the College of Engineering of the University of Michigan, the Stephen E. Attwood Award. He has served as consultant to over 30 industrial and governmental organizations in technical areas related to radiation measurements. He is a Fellow of IEEE, was selected for the 1996 IEEE/NPSS Merit Award, and in 2000 was a recipient of the Third Millennium Medal of the Society.
Science for Homeland Security - Tony Peurrung
This one day course will introduce the application of nuclear science generally and radiation detection methods specifically in the area of homeland security. This course is intended primarily for those who have some familiarity with nuclear science and radiation detection and would like to better understand homeland security applications and the science and technology issues unique to them. This course will therefore focus on relevant scientific concepts and technology development and deployment issues. The course will touch on, but not focus on, existing commercial instruments and systems deployed for homeland security applications. Prospective students with a general physics or engineering background but little preparation in the area of nuclear science are welcome but are very strongly encouraged to study the book Radiation Detection and Measurement (3’rd Edition, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 2000) by Professor Glenn Knoll prior to the course.
The course will start by defining what is meant by homeland security and discuss the general areas in which nuclear science expertise and technology comes into play for homeland security applications. A discussion of the operational environments typically encountered along with specific examples will be provided. A generic discussion of threat classes and their associated measurement methods will be given. The course will describe the basic classes of gamma-ray and neutron detection instrumentation considered for deployment and help students understand how decisions are made with respect to their use. The critical topic of “backgrounds” will be described including both natural radiation background and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). Approaches for data collection, analysis, and decision-making for various applied scenarios will be discussed. The role of advanced materials development, particularly the development of room temperature high resolution gamma ray spectrometers, in aiding homeland security applications will be described. The application of a variety of advanced radiation detection methods including imaging, collimation, pulse shape discrimination, and alternative signatures will be covered. Active and radiographical methods and their roles in homeland security will be described.
Dr. Anthony Peurrung has a BS degree in Electrical Engineering from Rice University and a Ph.D. degree in Physics from the University of California, Berkeley. His research has entailed contributions to a variety of fields within fundamental and applied physics including fluid mechanics, plasma physics, medical physics, separations science, environmental remediation, nuclear physics, and radiation detection methods and applications. Since 1994, Anthony has worked in the National Security Directorate of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory as a staff scientist, technical group manager, and currently is the director of the Physical and Chemical Sciences Division. His research interests include such topics as special nuclear material detection and characterization and fundamental advances in the areas of neutron detection and spectrometry. Anthony is a long standing member of the DOE’s Radiation Detection Panel and held the senior non-federal leadership role representing the DOE laboratory complex during the startup of DHS’s radiological/nuclear countermeasures science and technology program.
Dr. Eric Smith is a staff scientist at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, working in the area of applied radiation detection. His primary research areas of interest are modeling and simulation of homeland/national security scenarios, multi-coincidence trace radionuclide detection techniques, and next-generation radiation sensor technologies. Eric is active in DHS Domestic Nuclear Detection Office R&D and assessment programs, and is a technical advisor to the US Customs and Border Protection’s Radiation Portal Monitor program. Eric has also served as PNNL’s representative to DOE’s Nonproliferation Research and Engineering Radiation Detection Panel. Prior to joining PNNL in 2001, he was a staff member at Argonne National Laboratory and led projects in nondestructive assay and waste characterization. Eric received a B.S. in Nuclear Engineering from Oregon State University, and his M.S. and Ph.D. in Nuclear and Radiological Sciences from the University of Michigan.
Dr. Glen Warren is a staff scientist at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, working in the areas of active interrogation and applied radiation detection. His primary research interest is the application of nuclear resonance fluorescence and other active interrogation techniques to a variety of national and homeland security applications. In addition, Glen specializes in the modeling of complex radiation detectors and the analyses of the data resulting from these systems. Before joining PNNL in 2003, Glen’s research was focused on the electromagnetic structure of the neutron by conducting experiments at electron scattering facilities such as the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. Glen received a B.S. in Physics and Mathematics from the College of William and Mary, and his Ph.D. in Nuclear Physics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Circuit Front Ends for Nuclear Pulse Processing
- Paul O'Connor
This one-day course is intended to introduce physicists and detector
specialists to the fundamentals of integrated circuit front end design. The
class begins with a discussion of low-noise signal processing and semiconductor
devices and then delves into the details of implementing practical circuits in
modern CMOS technology. A basic knowledge of detectors and electronics is
1. Pulse Processing Fundamentals
- Signal formation in detectors
- Noise and gain mechanisms
- Pulse processing for amplitude and timing extraction
2. Semiconductor Technology for Integrated Circuit Front Ends
- Operation and characteristics of MOS and bipolar transistors
- Sub-micron CMOS and BICMOS technology
- Feature size scaling
- Radiation effects and reliability
- Mixed-signal circuits
3. Analog circuit design
- The IC design process and CAD tools
- Foundry access, multiproject services
- Building blocks for the analog channel: charge-sensitive and pulse-shaping
amplifiers, baseline stabilizers, peak detectors, track/hold, multiplexers,
- Analog-to-digital and time-to-digital converters (ADC and TDC)
4. Packaging and Interconnect
5. Application examples
Course registration fee includes lunch and refreshments, a copy of the lecture
notes, and a certificate of completion.
Veljko Radeka, Senior Scientist
and Head of Instrumentation Division at Brookhaven National laboratory. His
interests have been in scientific instruments, radiation detectors, noise and
signal processing, and low noise electronics. He authored or co-authored about
170 publications. He is a Life Fellow of IEEE and a Fellow of APS.
Paul O’Connor is associate Head of the Instrumentation Division at
Brookhaven National Laboratory. He has a Ph.D. degree in solid-state physics
from Brown University and worked from 1980-1990 at AT&T Bell Laboratories prior
to joining BNL. His research interests are in the field of instrumentation
systems for radiation detection, particularly low noise analog CMOS front-end
circuits. He is author and co-author of about 50 publications and has been an
IEEE member since 1980.
4. Programming and Medical Applications Using Graphics Hardware
- Arkadiusz Sitek
This course is an introduction to programming and applications of graphics processing unit (GPU) in medical imaging. Driven by the computer game industry, the development of graphics hardware experienced tremendous growth in recent years. Due to parallel computational architecture as well as availability of GPU hardware implemented geometrical functions used frequently in data analysis and reconstruction, the GPU offers readily available fast computational resource that can be used in medical imaging applications. However, the GPU programming model is substantially different than standard Von Neumann architecture used for the programming of the CPUs. The course will introduce computational model of the GPU in the context of basic computer graphics and general purpose computing. Introduction to programming using C for Graphics (Cg) and GLSH will be given. In the second part of the course advanced topics including implementations of the tomographic reconstructions of the X-Ray computed tomography and list-mode emission tomography data will be presented. Applications of the GPU for fast analytical calculations of Compton Scatter fractions in emission tomography will also be discussed. Basic knowledge of C programming language is recommended.
Guillem Pratx, M.S. is a doctoral candidate in Electrical Engineering at Stanford University, conducting his dissertation research within a laboratory in the Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford (MIPS). His dissertation focus has been on the research and development of practical algorithms that exploit graphics processing units (GPU) for fast medical image reconstruction, focusing particularly on ultra-high resolution PET systems under development at Stanford. In support of his work he has received several fellowships, including the NVIDIA fellowship, the Society of Nuclear Medicine Bradley-Alavi student fellowship, and the Stanford Bio-X graduate student fellowship.
Sven Prevrhal, Ph.D. is a physicist and Assistant Adjunct Professor at the Department of Radiology, University of California, San Francisco. He received his Ph.D. in 1997 at the Technical University Vienna, Austria and is currently interested in the development of advanced tomographic reconstruction techniques for Computed Tomography to remove artifacts created by metallic hardware.
Arkadiusz Sitek, Ph.D. is a physicist at the Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston and an Assistant Professor at the Harvard Medical School. He received his Ph.D. in Physics from the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, Canada in 1998. His main research interests are focused on alternative three-dimensional medical image representations and visualizations. Dr. Sitek is an expert C/C++ programmer with experience in programming of the GPU for medical applications.
5. Physics and Design of Detectors for
SPECT and PET -
Biology for Imaging Scientists - Caius G. Radu
This course is intended as an introduction to fundamental concepts of Molecular Biology presented from the perspective of integrating imaging techniques with the emerging concepts of personalized medicine and systems biology. In this context, the revolution that has taken place during the last decade in genetics and molecular biology can be traced back to the development of techniques that enabled scientists to manipulate and analyze genetic material. These approaches, together with new data-gathering technologies such as genomics, proteomics and imaging have a significant potential for translation into medically relevant knowledge.
The success of this endeavor depends largely on the creation of an interactive, inter-disciplinary scientific culture in which experts in engineering, physics, chemistry, mathematics, and computer science join biologists to ensure the efficient integration of new technologies. Opportunities for such inter-disciplinary interactions and relevant examples will be emphasized during the Molecular Biology course. Moreover, this year, the course will attempt to illustrate fundamental concepts in Molecular Biology using specific examples of molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of human diseases in general and cancer in particular. Potential imaging applications to study such disease-causing mechanisms will also be discussed.
Part 1: Nucleic Acids and the Synthesis of Macromolecules
DNA Replication and Repair
From DNA to RNA to Protein
Part 2: The Cell
Biomembranes, Subcellular Organization of Eukaryotic
Cells, Membrane Transport Mechanisms
Regulation of Cell Division and Cell Death
Part 3: Molecular Biology Techniques
DNA Engineering, Gene Replacement, Transgenic Animals,
Recombinant Antibody Technology
Large scale analyses of gene and protein expression (DNA
Microarrays, Proteomics and an Introduction to Systems Biology)
Dr. Radu is an Assistant Professor in the Crump Institute for Molecular Imaging and the Department of Medical & Molecular Pharmacology at UCLA. Dr. Radu’s research interest is directed towards applying molecular imaging approaches such as Positron Emission Tomography to monitor immune responses in cancer and autoimmune disorders. A significant focus of this work is development of novel PET imaging probes specific for activated lymphocytes and of non-immunogenic PET reporter gene systems for in vivo cell-tracking studies.
7. Statistical Methods for Image Reconstruction
- Larry Zeng
8. Dynamic Imaging in Emission Tomography
- Anna Celler
9. Image Quality
- Matthew A. Kupinski and Kyle J. Myers
Stephen E. Derenzo
NSS Short Courses Program Chair
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
MIC Short Courses Program Chair
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory